There are many shortcuts available for the keyboard. The first ones we'll look at are on the letter screen.
Tap on the up arrow once to get capitalization for the first letter only.
Tap on the up arrow twice to keep capitalization on for everything.
While in the letter screen of the keyboard hold down the comma key to get an apostrophe. To use it (without lifting your finger) slide your finger on top of it.
To add quotation marks hold down the period and slide your finger up.
There are many other symbols for languages other than English so touch and hold letters to see what's available.
Now let's take a look at the digit screen. For the first one if you hold down the digit 0 you get the degree symbol.
Hold down the quotation mark to get various forms of quotations and guillemets.
Hold down the apostrophe key to use other forms of apostrophes.
To get an ellipsis hold down the period and slide your finger.
Hold down the dollar sign to use other various forms of currency symbols.
Hold down the hyphen key to use other various forms.
Finally, when entering a web address in a browser hold down the .com or sometimes period to get other choices such as .org, etc.
Realize there are many more keyboards available. Click on settings and go to General. Once in General scroll down to Keyboard and tap it.
Once in keyboards tap Keyboards again to add another type of keyboard. As you can see I have two keyboards enabled.
Tap on Add New Keyboard.
If you're into Emoji tap on it to add or any other keyboard you need.
Now that you've added keyboards each time you tap on the globe located in the lower left of the keyboard you will change keyboards.
I hope this has helped you with using and adding keyboards to your iOS devices.