Ok so first thing is first. A tool is considered a machine! Even though some don't have moving parts they are. A machine is anything that makes a task easier, basically it'll require less effort
This is a wrench, Duh! But wait its not THAT simple. Sorry :/ this is a open ended wrench it has two sides which are in most cases different sizes.
This is a combination wrench. In most cases are the same size on both ends. The closed end is in a sense miniature socket used for hex head bolts or screws.
This is an adjustable wrench. It's a universal wrench that can be adjusted to multiple sizes.
This is a ratchet. Ratchets are used for many things, but the most common use is with sockets. Sockets are used to remove/put on certain screws or bolts. (These are considered a type of wrench)
This is a socket. These go with a ratchet. These go wit hex head bolts and screws.
This is a Allen wrench. These are used for screws or bolts with a head that is in the shape of a hexagon.
This is a screwdriver. The most universal tool used to insert or remove screws. Either flat head or a Phillips. Phillips are the x looking screws. There are also Robertson which look like a square.
These look like a pair of pliers but they are actually wire strippers, wire cutters or a splicer. These are in the plier family.
This is a drill bit. There are multiple types meaning they all have different functions and are used on different surfaces.